Design for Enhanced Resilience | U.S. Green Building Council
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LEED BD+C: New Construction | v4 - LEED v4

Design for Enhanced Resilience

Possible 1 point

Intent

Design and construct buildings that can resist, with minimal damage, reasonably expected * natural disasters and weather events (i.e. flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes/high winds, earthquakes, tsunamis, drought, and wildfires).

*Meeting minimum regulatory and code requirements for the siting, design, and construction of a building does not guarantee that the building will be safe from all hazard effects. Risk to the building still exists. It is up to the designer and building owner to determine the amount of acceptable risk.
FEMA Publication 55 – Coastal Construction Manual

Requirements

For each of the top three hazards identified in Hazard Assessment, IPpc98 - Assessment and Planning for Resilience, the mitigation strategies described below must be implemented. If fewer than three hazards are identified in IPpc98 then all those identified need to be addressed. Specific requirements for each hazard type are described below. Outside the United States you may use the U.S. standard or local equivalent standards, whichever is more stringent, and document its equivalence.

See footnotes for referenced standards.

Implementation
Hazard-Specific design measures

Flooding (including Hurricanes)

Option 1: Flooding-Specific design measures

  • Structures must incorporate all flood resistant provisions of ASCE 24-14 Flood Resistant Design and Construction, (2014).
  • The lowest occupied floor's lowest structural member must be a minimum of five (5) feet above the FEMA-defined base flood elevation (BFE+5), as defined for FEMA NFIP Zone V and recommended for Coastal Zone A. As an alternative, in commercial projects only, dry flood-proofing practices may be followed and certified by a Licensed Design Professional for any spaces located below BFE+5. - OR - Meet Executive Order (EO) 13690 Federal Flood Risk Management Standard.
  • Foundations in the Coastal Zone A shall be the same as required in the Coastal Zone V.
  • Primary mechanical and electrical equipment, including HVAC equipment, water heating equipment, electrical panels, and generators, must follow FEMA 55 guidelines and FEMA Technical Bulletins and Advisories for wet and dry flood-proofing. All sewer connections must include sewer backflow preventers at the point of entry into the building on the main discharge sewer line.

OR

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
All non-residential projects shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.4 Flood Specific Design Requirements.

Tornado/High Wind (including Hurricanes)1

Option 1: Tornado/High Wind-Specific design measures

  • If project is located within FEMA Wind Zones II, III or IV, then all structures must incorporate wind design measures per the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7-10).
  • Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III or IV with public/community uses and multifamily housing facilities must include safe rooms designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-361 Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms, 2015 edition.
  • Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III and IV without community uses must include refuge areas designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-431 Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings.

OR

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards

  • All non-residential projects shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.1 Wind Design Requirements Common to all Hurricane, High Wind and Tornado/Hail Areas.
  • In addition, for projects that are located in Tornado zones, all non-residential projects shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.3 Hail & Tornado Specific Design Requirements.
  • In addition, all non-residential projects in hurricane zones shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.1 Wind Design Requirements Common to all Hurricane, High Wind and Tornado/Hail Areas and 3.2 Hurricane Specific Design Requirements.
Earthquake

Option 1: Earthquake-Specific design measures
Design to meet at least a Silver rating using the ARUP REDi Rating System: Resilience-based Earthquake Design Initiative for the Next Generation of Buildings.

OR

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
All non-residential projects shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.5 Seismic Specific Design Requirements1.

Tsunami

Tsunami-Specific design measures
Design and construct according to standards detailed in Designing for Tsunamis: Seven Principles for Planning and Designing for Tsunami Hazards (by NOAA, USGS, FEMA, NSF, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington), March 2001 edition1.

In addition, projects with community/public uses shall include provisions for vertical evacuation per FEMA P-646 Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis, Second Edition (2012).

Wildfire

Option 1: Wildfire-Specific design measures
Demonstrate compliance with ICC's 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional which describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

OR

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
All non-residential projects shall meet the FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) DESIGN CRITERIA 3.7 Wildfire Specific Design Requirements. Submit completed FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) Design Requirements & Construction Documents Requirements checklists for all required design criteria.

Drought

Drought-Specific design measures
Reduce the project's landscape water requirement by at least sixty percent (60%) per the WE Outdoor Water Use Reduction credit and use non-potable or non-municipal water sources.
In addition, reduce flush and flow fixture water use per the WE Indoor Water Use Reduction by at least sixty percent (60%).

Follow the requirements of the WE Outdoor Water Use Reduction and WE Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the minimum thresholds of this credit.

Landslides and unstable soils

Landslide-Specific design measures

  • Signed report from a geotechnical engineer showing that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75°) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated and are determined to NOT pose a landslide risk.
  • Contour map of site highlighting any areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75°) and showing landslide-prone soils;
  • Contour map showing the larger area that extends above the building site showing areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75°) and landslide-prone soils;
  • Signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal risk.

Documentation

General

Register for the pilot credit

Pilot Credit Survey

Credit Specific

Documentation All Projects
Complete the Resilience Credit 1 Hazard Assessment
custom template summarizing the hazard identification, reference
documents, and determination of priorities. Attach any
site-specific custom analyses developed.
 
X
For the top three* hazards or vulnerabilities identified in
Resilience Credit 1 Hazard Assessment, document the
mitigation strategies implemented as described in this credit
(Credit 2) for each relevant hazard
 
X

* If fewer than three hazards or vulnerabilities are identified in Credit 1 Hazard Assessment, then document only the one or two identified

Flooding

Option 1: Flooding-Specific design measures
Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

  • For hurricane prone sites, signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet referenced flooding requirements.
  • Site plan drawing showing locations and product documentation of backflow preventers used on project.
  • Section and plan drawings showing major equipment locations.
  • Section and plan drawings showing lowest occupied floor OR engineer-stamped, dry flood-proofing practices have been followed for any spaces located below BFE+5.

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
Submit completed FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) Design Requirements & Construction Documents Requirements checklists for all required design criteria.

Tornado/High Wind (including Hurricanes)

Option 1: Tornado/High Wind-Specific design measures
Submit the following documentation to demonstrate compliance with above standards.

  • Signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional which describes how the project met or will meet wind standards.
  • Plan drawing showing location and details about the construction of safe room for public/community project or safe refuge area for non-public project (if applicable).

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
Submit completed FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) Design Requirements & Construction Documents Requirements checklists for all required design criteria.

Earthquake

Option 1: Earthquake-Specific design measures
Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet REDi Seismic Design standards.

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
Submit completed FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) Design Requirements & Construction Documents Requirements checklists for all required design criteria.

Tsunami

Tsunami-Specific design measures

  • Provide a signed Executive Summary of a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet NOAA principles for Tsunami design.
  • Provide a narrative, plan and section drawings that describe vertical evacuation design including warning system and signage guiding evacuees.
Wildfire

Option 1: Wildfire-Specific design measures
Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional which describes how the project met or will meet ICC's 2012 IWUIC and/ or 2013 NFPA 1144.

Option 2: FORTIFIED standards
Submit completed FORTIFIED for Safer Business (Revised 2014) Design Requirements & Construction Documents Requirements checklists for all required design criteria.

Drought

Drought-Specific design measures
Follow the requirements of the WE Outdoor Water Use Reduction and WE Indoor Water Use Reduction credits to demonstrate compliance with the minimum thresholds of this credit.

Landslides and unstable soils

Landslide-Specific design measures

  • Signed report from a geotechnical engineer showing that any steep-slope (≥ 15% or 6.75°) soils and underlying geology on the building site and uphill from the building site have been investigated and are determined to NOT pose a landslide risk.
  • Contour map of site highlighting any areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75°) and showing landslide-prone soils;
  • Contour map showing the larger area that extends above the building site showing areas with slope greater than 15% (6.75°) and landslide-prone soils;
  • Signed letter from a geotechnical engineer showing that landslides pose minimal risk.

1 For projects outside the United States:
International projects may use the U.S. standard or a local equivalent, whichever is more stringent. Where an alternative international standard has been used, document its equivalence with the applicable US-based standard.

Flooding (including Hurricanes)

Issues to Consider
Flooding can result from storm surge associated with tropical storms, from exceptional tides, from intense rainfall events that result in rivers or streams jumping their banks, and from rapid ice-melt in late-winter or spring. In coastal areas, rising sea level will greatly exacerbate flooding, increasing both its frequency and severity. No matter what the cause of flooding, the solutions for achieving greater resilience are much the same.

Referenced Standards

Tornado/High Wind (including Hurricanes)

Issues to Consider
High winds can result from tropical storms and hurricanes, from localized thunderstorms, from more extensive regional storm systems (including derechos), from region-specific conditions (such as the Chinook winds that are common on the eastern slope of the northern Rockies in late-winter and spring), and in the most extreme case, tornadoes. With climate change, weather conditions are predicted to become more extreme, and this will mean increased wind events in many areas.
Designing to achieve resilience to high winds is a well-established structural engineering discipline. In the case of tornadoes, in which winds can exceed 200 miles per hour - and even 300 mph in the largest tornadoes - protecting the building usually isn't practical, and solutions involve sheltering occupants.

Referenced Standards

Earthquake

Issues to Consider
Earthquakes are geologic events associated with movement of the Earth's tectonic plates. As such, earthquake activity is generally limited to very specific regions where fault lines exist between these plates. In some cases, seismic activity is caused or exacerbated by human activities, such as fracking—resulting in earthquakes in places that have not previously experienced them. The most seismically active regions are well-known, and building codes in these locations generally call for specific measures to allow occupants to escape buildings safely. Resilience to earthquake damage generally goes further than simply providing for the safe egress from buildings to minimizing damage to the buildings so that they can return quickly to functionality.

Referenced Standards

Tsunami

Issues to Consider
Tsunamis are specialized seismic events that can result in sudden and extreme flooding and erosion of coastal areas. Unlike with other forms of flooding, however, they are not predictable over a specific time horizon; there may be minutes' to a few hours' warning of the arrival of tsunamis.

Referenced Standards

Wildfire

Issues to Consider
Wildfire has been a natural part of ecosystems for millions of years, particularly in regions in which there is a significant dry season. This becomes a problem when development extends into these traditionally fire-managed ecosystems, such as are found in Southern California, Colorado, and much of the West. Drought, which climate models predict will become more frequent and of longer duration in some areas, increases wildfire risk, as does the die-off of trees that can occur when warming winters fail to keep wood-boring beetles in check, as has occurred in the Northern Rockies in recent decades.

Referenced Standards

Additional references

Drought

Issues to Consider
Cycles of drought have been common for millions of years, as geologic evidence shows. In the Western United States, climate change models predict that drought will increase in frequency and severity. And drought may even become a problem in areas where drought has been less common, such as in the Southeastern U.S. The characteristics of reservoirs also affect the impact that droughts cause; in the East, reservoirs tend to be shallower, with less capacity to deal with periodic fluctuations in precipitation. The depletion of aquifers in some regions will also decrease our capacity to deal with droughts.
Strategies for dealing with drought include a wide range of water conservation measures, both indoors and outdoors. Water catchment and storage can also play into a suite of solutions.

Landslides and unstable soils

Issues to Consider
Landslides are a significant hazard in areas with certain soil/geologic conditions and in which steep slopes are found either on the building site or uphill of that building site. Landslide risks are exacerbated by heavy rainfall events, during seismic events, following wildfires, through commercial lumber harvesting operations, or from large-scale die-offs of trees that can be an impact of climate change.

Additional General Issue to Consider
Terrorism and Other Direct Human Actions
There is significant concern about terrorism worldwide. As our energy infrastructure becomes more complex and increasingly controlled by Internet-based, "smart" technology, there are more points of accidental failure and also risk of hacking into controls.
While specific requirements for resilience measures related to terrorism and equipment malfunctions for other reasons are not included in this credit, design teams are encouraged to address passive survivability measures covered in Resilient Design Credit 3.

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